Supplemental Materials

The material below is intended to supplement selected publications by Peter Birkholz and coworkers. They contain, for example, autio stimuli that were used in perception experiments described in the papers.


Birkholz P, Martin L, Xu Y, Scherbaum S, Neuschaefer-Rube C (2016). Manipulation of the prosodic features of vocal tract length, nasality and articulatory precision using articulatory synthesis. Computer Speech & Language, 41, pp. 116-127

In this study we examined the articulatory generation of secondary prosodic features using articulatory speech synthesis. Therefore, we manipulated certain articulatory features of re-synthesized German words and asked listeners to rate the prosodic effects. We applied the following articulatory manipulations:
  1. Best possible resynthesis of the natural utterance (no manipulation)
  2. Simulation of a longer vocal tract (larynx lowering and lip protrusion)
  3. Simulation of a shorter vocal tract (larynx raising and lip retraction)
  4. Nasalized articulation of all sonorants
  5. Reduced articulatory effort (lower speed of target approximation)
  6. Increased articulatory effort (higher speed of target approximation)
  7. Slight centralization of all vowels and consonants (towards an indifferent articulation)
  8. Strong centralization of all vowels and consonants
In the following list, you can listen to each of the nine words synthesized in each of the above variants (in the given order): Here you can furthermore download the gestural scores and the speaker file used to synthesize the stimuli with VocalTractLab 2.1.
Birkholz P, Martin L, Willmes K, Kröger BJ, Neuschaefer-Rube C (2015). The contribution of phonation type to the perception of vocal emotions in German: an articulatory synthesis study. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 137(3), pp. 1503–1512

In this study we examined how the sole change of phonation type can change the perception of vocal emotions in re-synthesized portrayed emotional utterances, when other prosodic parameters (phone duration, pitch) remain the same as in the original utterance. Below are the stimuli for one of the examined sentences ("Der Lappen liegt auf dem Eisschrank"), which was originally spoken with seven emotional expressions. For each emotion, you will first hear the original utterance re-synthesized as good as possible with regard to phonation type, phone duration, and pitch. Then you hear the same sentence with the phonation type replaced by purely breathy voice, purely modal voice, and purely pressed voice. The whole supplemental material for the paper (also including the screenshot in Fig. 2) can be downloaded here.
Mumtaz R, Preuß S, Neuschaefer-Rube C, Hey C, Sader R, Birkholz P (2014). Tongue Contour Reconstruction from Optical and Electrical Palatography. IEEE Signal Processing Letters, 21(6), pp. 658-662

In this study we examined the potential of optical and electrical palatography (OPG and EPG) for the reconstruction of the tongue contour. Therefore, we extracted the tongue contour and the corresponding (virtual) EPG and OPG data from MRI corpora of the vocal tract of two different speakers, and trained linear models to predict the tongue contours based on the sensor data.
This supplemental material contains the tongue and vocal tract contours extracted from the MRI samples as svg files, the tongue points and simulated sensor data in Excel tables, and Matlab scripts for the cross-validation and EPG index calculation.


Birkholz P, Kröger BJ, Neuschaefer-Rube C (2011). Articulatory synthesis of words in six voice qualities using a modified two-mass model of the vocal folds. In: Proc. of the 1st International Workshop on Performative Speech and Singing Synthesis, Vancouver, BC [pdf]

In this study we examined the capability of our extended two-mass model of the vocal folds to synthesize words in different voice qualities. The following stimuli were synthesized and judged by listeners with respect to the perceived voice quality:
Birkholz P, Kröger BJ, Neuschaefer-Rube C (2010). Stimmsynthese mit einem Zwei-Massen-Modell der Stimmlippen mit dreieckigem Öffnungsquerschnitt. In 27th Jahrestagung der DGPP, Aachen, Germany [pdf]

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